Derzhavin Tambov State University is actively engaged in scientific activities and has significant opportunities for conducting scientific research in both social-humanitarian and natural-science fields.

The main directions of scientific activity of the University are as follows: research in the field of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, ecology and biotechnology, environmental management, microbiology, material physics, computer and mathematical modeling in natural sciences and social sphere, creation and effective use of unmanned aircraft systems, etc. As for liberal sciences, the following scientific schools are successfully developing: cognitive linguistics, Russian and foreign literature, pedagogy and psychology, Russian and foreign history, philosophy, foreign language teaching theory and culture, etc.

Scientific studies are conducted by research teams under the guidance of leading scientists in modern research centers and laboratories of the University. Among the largest research departments of the University are the Center for Collective Use of Scientific Equipment (having more than 50 units of high-tech equipment for measurement and research), the Simulation and Accreditation Center (equipped with the latest training equipment, mannequins and robots that are designed for testing diagnostic and therapeutic manipulations), the Center for Competencies in the Field of Application of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (equipped with serial unmanned systems for performing research, development and experimental work in order to develop “end-to-end technologies” for using unmanned aircraft and geo-information systems), as well as the NanoBioMed Laboratory (advanced research center in the field of molecular biomedicine), the Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, the Research Institute of Ecology and Biotechnologies, the Research Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, the Research Institute of State and Legal Relations, the Prototyping Center, the Telecommunication Systems Design Bureau, etc.

Leading scientists and research teams of the University receive ongoing support for their research in the form of grants from Russian and foreign funds and programs (Russian Science Foundation, Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Federal targeted programs, DAAD, DFG, ERASMUS +, ERASMUS MUNDUS, etc.). Currently, two large research projects are being implemented under the Federal Target Program “Research and Development in Priority Directions for the Development of the Scientific and Technological Complex of Russia” for 2014–2020: “Development of Technical Solutions for Intensive Reforestation after Fires Using Nanostructured Stimulators for Growth and Ligneous Plant Protection, Developed by the Method of Microclonal Reproduction to Minimize the Negative Economic Effects of Forest Fires for the Logging Industry” and “Creating a Scientific and Technical Basis for the Construction of the Universal Robotic Platform for Basing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles of Multirotory and Hybrid Aerodynamic Schemes for Regular Automatic Unmanned Monitoring of Objects and Territories in Remote and Inaccessible Areas."

The University pays great attention to patent and licensing activities. In 2017, 13 patents for inventions and utility models were received, 5 certificates of state registration of computer programs and databases, as well as 8 secrets of production - know-how. In total, the University has 35 patents for inventions and utility models and 26 know-how.

University researchers and faculty members actively publish their research results in scientific journals indexed in the Scopus, Web of Science, Dimensions, Springer Link, Google Scholar, MS Academic and other databases. The University publishes 15 scientific journals, including Voprosy Kognitivnoy Lingvistiki (Issues of Cognitive Linguistics), which is included in Scopus.